Simon J. Rhodes, Ph.D.

Image of Dr. Rhodes

Professor, Department of Biology

Dean of Science

Adjunct Professor, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Cellular & Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine

LD Building, Room 222

402 North Blackford Street


Indianapolis, IN 46202

(317) 274-0625



My research investigates how key regulatory genes direct the determination and differentiation of individual endocrine cell lineages of the brain and pituitary during vertebrate development. The anterior pituitary gland presents a valuable model system to pursue these studies. The mature gland contains five discrete cell types that are each characterized by the secretion of specific polypeptide hormones critical for growth, sexual function, lactation, thyroid activity, adrenal physiology and homeostasis. We use both molecular/in vitro and transgenic/knock-in animal approaches to examine the roles of several classes of transcription factors in specification of pituitary cell phenotypes. Our research goals include:

    1. Characterization of the basic biology/biochemistry of endocrine transcription factors.
    2. Investigation of the molecular nature of human pituitary diseases, especially growth disorders in children, in collaboration with pediatricians at Riley Children's Hospital and elsewhere.


    Gregory, L.C., Humayun, K.N., Turton, J.P.G., McCabe, M.J., Martinez-Barbera, J.-P., Rhodes, S.J., and Dattani, M.T. (2015). Novel lethal form of congenital hypopituitarism associated with the first recessive LHX4 mutation J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2015 Jun;100(6):2158-64. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-4484. Epub 2015 Apr 14.
    Gahete, M.D., Duran-Prado, M., Delgado-Niebla, E., Garrido, J.J., Rhodes, S.J., García-Navarro, S., Gracia-Navarro, F., Malagon, M.M., Luque, R.M., and Castaño, J.P. (2014). Porcine sst1 can physically interact with other somatostatin receptors and its expression is regulated by metabolic/inflammatory sensors. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2014 Mar 1;306(5):E483-93. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00587.2013.
    Malik, R.E. and Rhodes, S.J. (2013). The role of DNA methylation in regulation of the murine Lhx3 gene. Gene. 2013 Oct 31. doi:pii: S0378-1119(13)01454-6. 10.1016/j.gene.2013.10.045.
    Park, S., Mullen, R.D., and Rhodes, S.J. (2013). Cell-specific actions of a human LHX3 gene enhancer during pituitary and spinal cord development. Mol. Endocrinol. 2013 Dec;27(12):2013-27. doi: 10.1210/me.2013-1161. Epub 2013 Oct 7.
    Hunter, C.S., Malik, R.E., Witzmann, F., and Rhodes, S.J. (2013). LHX3 interacts with inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase complex subunits LANP and TAF-1β to modulate pituitary gene regulation. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 4;8(7):e68898. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068898.
    Prince, K.L., Colvin, S.C., Park, S., Lai, X., Witzmann, F.A., and Rhodes, S.J. (2013). Developmental analysis and influence of genetic background on the Lhx3 W227ter mouse model of combined pituitary hormone deficiency disease. Endocrinology. 2013. Feb;154(2):738-48. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1790. Epub 2013 Jan 3.
    Yusuf, D., et al. (2012). The transcription factor encyclopedia. Genome Biol. 2012;13(3):R24. doi: 10.1186/gb-2012-13-3-r24.
    Dong, Y., Zhang, L., Zhang, S., Bai, Y., Chen, H., Sun, X., Yong, W., Li, W., Colvin, S.C., Rhodes, S.J., Shou, W., and Zhang, Z.Y. (2012). Phosphatase of regenerating liver 2 (PRL2) is essential for placental development by down-regulating PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue Deleted on Chromosome 10) and activating Akt protein. J. Biol. Chem. 2012 Sep 14;287(38):32172-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.393462. Epub 2012 Jul. *Journal of Biological Chemistry "Paper of the Week".
    Mullen, R.D., Park, S., and Rhodes, S.J. (2012). A distal modular enhancer complex acts to control pituitary- and nervous system-specific expression of the LHX3 regulatory gene. Mol. Endocrinol. 2012 Feb;26(2):308-19. Epub 2011 Dec 22.
    Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, S., Hiedl, S., Roeb, J., Lohse, P., Malik, R.E., Park, S., Durán-Prado, M., and Rhodes, S.J. (2012). A recessive mutation resulting in a disabling amino acid substitution (T194R) in the LHX3 homeodomain causes combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Horm Res Paediatr. 2012;77(1):41-51. doi: 10.1159/000335929. Epub 2012 Jan 26.
    Prince, K.E., Walvoord, E.C., and Rhodes, S.J. (2011). The role of homeodomain transcription factors in heritable pituitary disease. Nature Rev. Endocrinol. 2011 Jul 26;7(12):727-37. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.119.
    Colvin, S.C., Malik R.E., Showalter, A.D., Sloop, K.W., and Rhodes, S.J. (2011). A model of pediatric pituitary hormone deficiency separates the endocrine and neural functions of the LHX3 transcription factor in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 2011 Jan 4;108(1):173-8. Epub 2010 Dec 13. *featured article.